Tugwell, Peter and Robinson, Vivian and Morris, Erin (2007) Mapping global health inequalities: challenges and opportunities. In: Mapping global health inequalities: challenges and opportunities.
Health inequalities both between and within countries persist, for almost all diseases and health problems. Between countries, both average life expectancy and child mortality have improved more in the richest countries than the poorest (Marmot 2007). Within countries, progress on redressing health inequalities is uneven, and data are not always available over time. Analysis of 22 countries with available data found that only five of 22 countries reduced health inequalities in childhood mortality across income from 1995 to 2000 (Moser 2005). Health inequalities are differences in health across population groups defined by socioeconomic, demographic, or geographic factors. These factors can be summarized using the acronym PROGRESS: Place of residence (urban/rural), Race/ethnicity, Occupation, Gender, Religion, Education, Socioeconomic status, and Social capital/resources (Evans and Brown 2003).
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